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(For example, when the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, only about 700 milligrams of mass—about one-third the mass of a U. dime—was converted to energy.) Nuclear energy is usually released as kinetic energy.

The high velocity fragments generate heat as they slow down during multiple collisions.

If two deuterium nuclei merge to become helium, 2.2 Me V 2.2 Me V of binding energy are replaced by helium-4’s average binding energy of 7.1 Me V per nucleon, or a total of 4 x 7.1 Me V. Fission (as well as fusion) can be sustained only if energy is released to drive more fission (or fusion). It is also the energy required to break (unbind) a nucleus into separate protons and neutrons.

The closer the mass of a nucleus is to the mass of an iron or nickel nucleus (60 AMU), the more binding energy that nucleus has per nucleon.

Few of the theorized steps can be demonstrated experimentally.

Observations on earth and in space support the hydroplate explanation and refute the evolution explanation for earth’s radioactivity.

, a type of decay, is beta decay in reverse; that is, an atom’s electron enters the nucleus, combines with a proton, and converts it into a neutron.

Few scientists realize that on rare occasions heavy nuclei will decay by emitting a carbon-14 nucleus ( This calls into question the basic assumptions of the radiocarbon dating technique, especially when one understands the origin of earth’s radioactivity. " on pages 524–528.] Only about 65 naturally occurring radioisotopes are known.

In building a carbon-12 atom from 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons: Loss of Mass (m) = 12.098940 - 12.000000 = 0.098940 AMU Gain of Binding Energy (E) = 0.098940 AMU c Figure 201: Binding Energy.

First, we need to understand a few terms concerning the atom.

) carbon atoms would fit inside the period at the end of this sentence. If an atom were the size of a football field, its nucleus—which contains about 99.98% of an atom’s mass—would be the size of a tiny seed ! An electron is to a speck of dust as a speck of dust is to the earth!

Today, earth has 94 naturally occurring chemical elements..

If we could break a carbon-12 atom apart and “weigh” each of its six protons, six neutrons, and six electrons, the sum of their masses would be 12.098940 AMU—which is 0.098940 AMU heavier than the carbon-12 atom itself.


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